Friday, October 23, 2015

DC-2 in Finnish Air Force

Aircraft (type) history in Finnish Air Force

During Finnish independence / civil war Swedish count Erich von Rosen donated first aircraft of the Finnish white army. His son Carl Gustaf von Rosen followed his example during Winter War and bought a aircraft from his former employer KLM and donated it to Finnish Air Force (FAF) and joined the service as a pilot for this same aircraft.

There are lots of good resources for the aircraft type history in English so I'm only going to talk about it in Finnish Air Force.

The Winter War started on November 30th 1939 and von Rosen arrived to Finnish Air Defense headquarter in Helsinki on January 1940 and as an experienced twin engine pilot he was ordered to report in squadron 44 equipped with Bristol Blenheim bombers. He received commission as a reserve lieutenant but as he had no experienced with Blenheim he wasn't able to fly. With casualties mounting he traveled to Sweden to collect money for buying bombers for FAF. His family connections provided the funds, but nobody was selling as preparing their own defense. He then turned to KLM in order to buy DC-3 in order to modify it as a bomber. They also refused this, but offered a DC-2 instead and as a bonus two old Koolhoven F.K. 52 aircraft from Netherlands Air Force.


The aircraft were flown to Trollhättan in Sweden for modifications by SAAB. The modifications included bomb racks for two 250 kg bomb and four 100kg bomb, two bomb cassette for total of 48 12,5kg bombs replacing the toilet, forward firing 7.7mm Browning machine gun and open mount in the roof for 7,62mm L-33/36 machine gun. The engineers of SAAB said that this would be impossible, but by pure coincidence there was an engineer from Douglas present (F.G. Blumenthal) and he said that they are doable. The modifications took two weeks and Carl Gustav himself flew the test flights. He also flew the aircraft into Finland on February 14th 1940. According to the first mechanic of the aircraft it was named as "Hanssin-Jukka" in Trollhättan and the name is still in use. While in Trollhättan the aircraft also received registration DC-1 which was later changed to DO-1.

In Finland the modifications continued with additional bomb aiming equipment and two extra extra fuel tanks. Now DC-2 was ready for military operations and von Rosen asked permission for attack against Moscow as a retaliation against Soviet bombing of Finnish cities. The response was that only military targets are allowed.

First mission

The first and only bombing mission was flown on March 1st. It was a long distance raid against Soviet airfield with limited bomb load due to the range. As some of the bombs stuck on release they were forced to do a second bombing run and while doing it one of the motors seized. While returning on low level the crew noticed a line of parked Soviet fighters on a lake and strafed them. This was the only bombing mission flown with the aircraft as the peace was signed before repairs were done.

Interim Peace

All of the armament were removed during spring 1940 leaving only the mount for L-33/36 in the roof. The aircraft was modified for mapping and multiple cameras were installed and also oxygen equipment for high altitude missions were installed for the crew. The aircraft also received standing crew and the same pilot flew the aircraft until end of the 1944 when he retired from the air force (nevertheless he flew his final flight on February 1945.)

During this period the aircraft was also used as a long distance liaison missions and as a para drop training aircraft.

Continuation War

First the aircraft was to be used as a radio relay aircraft but after successful trials this plan was scrapped as other need for transport aircraft was more pressing. During the advance phase of the war the aircraft was used to supply Finnish advance in Karelia and to fly back wounded.
During this time aircraft was armed with the defensive machine gun.

As the front stabilized the aircraft was yet again used for radio experiments and for liaison missions while part of Squadron 48. In early 1942 the registration was changed and aircraft was moved directly under Air Force HQ. Now the aircraft was used mainly for liaison missions to Central Europe and fast transport of critical materials.

The extreme age of engines in the aircraft was creating problems and thus replacement engines were needed in summer 1942. The choice was Soviet Shvetsov M-62, which were in plentiful supply as a war booty and they were near copy of the original Cyclone. They were slightly heavier but also more powerful.

Lapland War

Cease fire with Soviet Union started on September 4th 1944 and this included a clause for removing Germans from Finland. This removal caused Lapland War as Germany had a sizable force there. Now the aircraft was yet again put on the front line missions for supply purposes. One of the missions was a para drop a long distance patrol unit but the weather kept aircraft grounded.

Peacetime use

The aircraft continued in use of FAF HQ until 1955 in various missions and the FAF even bought two other DC-2 aircraft from Aero Oy (Finnish Airlines) in March 1949. These received registrations (and names) DO-2 (Isoo-Antti) and DO-3 (Pikku-Lassi). DO-2 was last to be removed from use as FAF received two Percival Pembroke Mk 53 aircraft on April 1956.


The aircraft was bought by a youth department of a shooting club in Hämeenlinna to be used as a cafe to raise funds. This cafe was opened on summer 1959 and it was regularly open until mid 1970's and time to time until end of 70's. The aircraft was bought by Karelian Wing Flight Regiment 3 Guild registered society in order to restore it. The aircraft moved into better storage on late 1981 and in indoor storage until 1985. The lack of funds postponed restoration until summer 2010. The restored aircraft was presented on September 2011 and  on summer 2015 it was moved from storage facility to public presentation in Hämeenlinna.

Admiralty Trilogy

For pilot quality I'd use experienced as all of the crew had lot's of experience with the aircraft.

Man Rtng: 1.0/0.5Damage Value: 21
Size/Signature: MediumBombsight: Manual
Sensors: Cameras
Throttle Setting(Speed in knots)
AltitudeCruiseFull Mil
Ceiling: 7750 metersEngine Type: RP
Cruise Range: 800 nmInt Fuel:
Ordnance Loadouts: Payload: 2500kg
Off Guns: 1 7.7mm Browning (0.25)  
Def Guns: 1 7.62mm L-33/36 (0.1)
• max 2 250kg bomb + 4 100kg bomb + 48 12.5kg bomb
Remarks: In Finnish Service: 1940-56
Crew 2-4
Used as a camera aircraft
DO-1 in service 1940-55, DO-2, and -3 in service 49-56. DO-2, and -3 unarmed. DO-1 full armament during 40, only L-33/36 for rest of the war.

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Fokker F.VIIa in Finnish Air Force

Yet another donated aircraft to Finnish Air Force, this time from Danish Red Cross in 1941. The prototype of F.VIIa was flown in 1925 and total production was 42.
The Finnish Air Force received a single F.VIIa with Bristol Jupiter engine (other engines were also used in this type) and with ski capability. The was flown to Finland on October 28th 1941 and it received FE-2 designation (FE-1 was a Fokker F.VIII aircraft). It was refurbished in Aircraft Depot and then transferred to Squadron 16 (reconnaissance squadron) where it was used among other uses as an ambulance / casualty evacuation aircraft. This squadron operated mainly in Karelia. The aircraft was loaned to Squadron 6 (navy support squadron) between March 14th and March 30th 1942 for support of an iceborne invasion of Suursaari / Gogland. The aircraft was removed from service on June 21st 1943 due to the bad condition. Total flight time in Finland was 102 hours.

Admiralty Trilogy

For pilot quality I'd competent as the aircraft.

Fokker F.VIIaTransport
Man Rtng: 0.5/0.5Damage Value: 10
Size/Signature: MediumBombsight: Manual
Throttle Setting(Speed in knots)
AltitudeCruiseFull Mil
Ceiling: 3100 metersEngine Type: RP
Cruise Range: 567 nmInt Fuel:
Ordnance Loadouts: Payload:

Remarks: In Finnish Service: 1941-43
Eight passengers with 2 crew


Finnish Air Force History part 13 Dive Bombers and Liaison Aircraft by Keskinen, Stenman, and Niska
Wikipedia article in English

Sunday, May 18, 2014

Fokker F. VIII in Finnish Air Force

The Finnish plight during Winter War made many Swedes to contribute to defense of Finland. Some joined voluntary troops, some gave money collections, and so on.
This aircraft was bought to Finnish Air Force with money collected by organization called Nationella Samlingen. The history of this aircraft started when it was build 1928 for KLM, among the owners were also British Airways. The aircraft was in poor condition when it arrived and was sent to overhaul, while receiving designation FE-1. Aircraft was given to Squadron 46 as a transport aircraft on August 4th 1941 and it was lost in accident on September 27th. The area of the operations was Karelia.
Swedish Air Force also had one of these aircraft with type name Tp. 10 in its use between 1942 and 1944.

Admiralty Trilogy

For pilot quality I'd give inexperienced or at maximum competent as the aircraft only clocked 45h 15min in Finnish Air Force.

Fokker F.VIIITransport
Man Rtng: 0.5/0.5Damage Value: 14
Size/Signature: MediumBombsight: Manual
Throttle Setting(Speed in knots)
AltitudeCruiseFull Mil
Ceiling: 5500 metersEngine Type: RP
Cruise Range: 594 nmInt Fuel:
Ordnance Loadouts: Payload:

Remarks: In Finnish Service: 1941
Ten passengers with 3 crew

For Swedish aircraft the performance data differed between sources, some gave similar performance to the Finnish aircraft, some lot worse.


Finnish Air Force History part 13 Dive Bombers and Liaison Aircraft by Keskinen, Stenman, and Niska
Wikipedia articles in English, Swedish, and Finnish
Finnish aviation forum

Saturday, May 17, 2014

Airspeed AS.6E Envoy in Finnish Air Force

The aircraft

Luftwaffe shot down a Finnish D.H. 89A on November 1941 and Germany gave single Envoy as a reparation. This aircraft was formerly owned by the Czechoslovakian airline CSA and Germany captured it and other CSA aircraft in 1939.
The Finnish designation EV-1 was given after the aircraft was flown into Finland January 22nd 1942. The aircraft was mainly used as a trainer in Finnish Air Force.
First operator of the aircraft was Squadron 48 starting from April 25th 1942, which was the training squadron of the Flying Regiment 4 at that time. The aircraft was transferred to Replacement Squadron 17 on January 15th 1943 and later to Air Force Signals School on June 1st 1943. The aircraft crashed on July 31st 1943.

Admiralty Trilogy Stats

The Finnish aircraft was powered by 340hp Walter Castor engines and it has slightly different characteristics than AS.6J Envoy given in Wikipedia article.

Airspeed AS.6E EnvoyTraining
Man Rtng: 2/1.0Damage Value: 11
Size/Signature: MediumBombsight: Manual
Throttle Setting(Speed in knots)
AltitudeCruiseFull Mil
Ceiling: 5490 metersEngine Type: RP
Cruise Range: 540 nmInt Fuel: 360 kg
Ordnance Loadouts: Payload:

Remarks: In Finnish Service: 1942-1943

For pilot experience I'd use mainly inexperienced, as it is a trainer. Exception to this is Signals School where it was used to train radio operators and pilot should be at least competent.


Finnish Air Force History part 13 Dive Bombers and Liaison Aircraft by Keskinen, Stenman, and Niska
Wikipedia article.

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Hanriot H.232.2 in Finnish Air Force

Finnish Air Force bought three Hanriot H.232.2 trainers on July 1941 from Luftwaffe, which captured them from France. These aircraft got designations HT-191 to -193. Only two of them ever arrived to Finland as one was lost in transit.

The aircraft handling was described as "miniature Blenheim" and considered quite good trainer for pilot training for Blenheim. There were issues on maintenance and lack of space in cockpit especially when winter clothing was used.

Units operating with Hanriots


Täydennyslentolaivue 17

Replacement Squadron 17

Bomber training squadron, combined with Squadron 46 in September 41. Reformed in March 1942.

Lentolaivue 46, later Pommituslentolaivue 46

Squadron 46, later Bomber squadron 46

Bomber training squadron during autumn 41. Later bomber squadron.

Lentolaivue 48

Squadron 48

Bomber training squadron formed 23.11.41. Later bomber & reconnaissance squadron as Replacement Squadron 17 was reformed.

Admiralty trilogy stats

Hanriot H.232.2Training
Man Rtng: 2/1.0Damage Value: 13
Size/Signature: MediumBombsight: Manual
Throttle Setting(Speed in knots)
AltitudeCruiseFull Mil
Ceiling: 7500 metersEngine Type: IP
Cruise Range: 650 nmInt Fuel:
Ordnance Loadouts: Payload:

Remarks: In Finnish Service: 1941-1945

For pilot experience I'd use mainly inexperienced, as it is a trainer.

Individual aircraft histories


19.7.41 Received in Germany

5.8.41 Given to aircraft factory

21.8.41 Transferred to Replacement Squadron 17

28.9.41 Damaged in landing

28.9.41 Transferred to Squadron 46

26.11.42 Transferred to Squadron 48

25.2.42 Damaged

28.8.42 Damaged

8.2.43 To aircraft depot for repairs

4.3.43 To aircraft factory

16.1.45 Test flight

2.7.45 Moved to depot

2.1.50 Removed from inventory


19.7.41 Received in Germany

19.7.41 Destroyed in take off


19.7.41 Received in Germany

5.8.41 Given to aircraft factory

21.8.41 Transferred to Replacement Squadron 17

22.9.41 Transferred to Squadron 46

26.11.42 Transferred to Squadron 48

15.12.42 Transferred to Replacement Squadron 17

27.9.44 Transferred to Bomber Squadron 46

15.2.45 Damaged on landing

15.2.45 Moved to depot

2.1.50 Removed from inventory


Finnish Air Force History part 13 Dive Bombers and Liaison Aircraft by Keskinen, Stenman, and Niska Finnish aviation forum

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Review of Object-Oriented Analysis and Design for Information Systems by R.S. Wazlawick, publisher Morgan Kaufmann / Elsevier

Solid book delivering what it promises

The subtitle of this book is "Modeling with UML, OCL, and IFML". Before reading the book I had heard only about UML, and knew only the pure basics of it. Now with understanding of those other two I have more tools in my use for designing software. OCL aka Object Constraint Language is actually a part of the UML standard and it is a tool for giving explicit constraints without ambiguities of natural languages. IFML is Interaction Flow Modeling Language, which is an extension to UML for modeling user interfaces.

The flow of the book is quite good, I rarely had to reread sections in order to understand them (and none of these cases were due to the editing of the book). One minor issue was that sometimes the figures were quite far from the text referring to them. Nevertheless the figures themselves were excellent in clarifying the issues.

As in many other books in the field it uses a bit simplified, but still quite realistic, running example for which the object-oriented design is done in the book. The design goes from finding out what the system has to do to how the system has to communicate with database. While doing this reader is introduced for example to the use cases, stereotypes like report or CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete), patterns, functional modeling, testing, and user interface.

The online chapters (which were included completely at least on the O'Reilly Ebook) makes the written index bit less useful as only the chapter heading is given for them, but the sub-chapter headings are in the electronic table of context. I have to assume that those chapters are "missing" in the actual paper version of the book and they have to be downloaded from publishers site. I was considering posting a link to these chapters (given in the book) for you to review the style of the text but as they didn't show up in the search tool of Elsevier site, I decided not to do it.

I do have minor issue about one advice given in the book. The use of NULL values in relational databases. If you have read my earlier posts, you have seen multiple reviews about relational database books and videos authored by C.J. Date, and if I recall correctly all of those condemn use of NULL values in databases.

Overall now I feel lot more confident if I have to design a complicated software from the scratch and I have to thank this book about it.

I'll give a solid 4/5 (quite close to 5/5) with recommendation to read it

ps. I received this book free of charge for review purposes through O'Reilly Blogger Review program

Friday, May 2, 2014

Avro Anson I in Finnish Air Forces

Purchase and delivery

Finland bought 3 aircraft on January 31st 1936. First aircraft was ready on September 25th and arrived to Finland October 1st. Second plane was ready on November 16th and third January 5th.

Finnish Ansons

The aircraft received  designations AN 101 to 103, which was later on fixed to Finnish standard AN-101 to -103, while English serial numbers were K8738, K8739, and K8740. The aircraft should be almost same as British standard with 350hp Cheetah IX engines. Armament options in Finnish aircraft differ from the original, with Finnish L-33/34 7.62mm machine gun in turret (7.7mm forward firing Vickers is also used in Finland) and bomb load of maximum four 12.5 - 25 kg bombs and two 50 - 100 kg bombs. The Finnish bomb sight is Goertz I. During winter the aircraft were equipped with skis (testing with skis were done in winter 37-38 with AN-102.

AN-103 was equipped with RMKS/18x24 camera after overhaul during winter 38-39.

Units operating with Ansons

Lentoasema 6 renamed  1938 to Lentorykmentti 4

Flight Station 6 renamed 1938 to Flight Regiment 4

The subunits of this unit operated with Ansons. This unit was long distance operations unit (bombing and reconnaissance). Original base was Immola, but on autumn 1939 unit moved to Luonetjärvi and Joroinen, as the Immola was considered to be too close to border.
AN-103 was transferred to Separate Squadron after 38-39 overhaul, and just before the war rest of the Ansons were given to Replenishment Flight Regiment 4.
The subunits (Squadrons 42, 44, 46, and 48) operated with Ansons during Continuation War time to time.

Täydennyslentorykmentti 4

Replenishment Flight Regiment 4

This unit was training unit for Flight Regiment 4, preparing the pilots for operational flying after basic training.

Erillinen Lentolaivue.

Separate Squadron

This unit was support squadron for Navy. The camera equipped Anson was in this unit from April 25th 1939 to September 23rd 1939.

Air Force HQ

Ilmavoimien Esikunta

Air Force HQ used AN-101 from July 1942 until December 46

Test Flight


This unit received the last Anson from Air Force HQ on December 46 and used it until Summer 1947

Admiralty Trilogy

The data for this aircraft is available in Home Fleets. The Finnish source doesn't mention crutch tank, and gives internal fuel load of around 510 kg and range of 650 nautical miles. Finnish armament is discussed above.
For pilot experience, I'd consider training units to be mainly novices, Test Flight experienced and veteran, and other units from competent to veteran.

Individual aircraft histories 


25.9.1936 Ready in Manchester

6.10.1936 Transferred to Fligth Station 6

1.1.1938 Transferred to Squadron 44

20.6.1938 Damaged in landing

23.10.1939 Transferred to Replenishment Regiment

1.11.1939 Damaged in landing

2.4.1940 Transferred to Replenishment Regiment

4.5.1940 Transferred to Squadron 44

28.5.1940 Transferred to Squadron 42

19.6.1940 Moved to overhaul

24.1.1941 Transferred to Squadron 42

29.1.1941 Damaged

7.4.1941 Moved to aircraft factory

19.7.1942 Transferred to Air Force HQ

20.12.1946 Transferred to Test Flight

3.7.1947 Last Flight


16.11.1936 Ready in Manchester

28.11.1936 Transferred to Flight Station 6

8.12.1936 Damaged on landing

23.12.1937 Moved to aircraft factory for ski testing

28.2.1938 Transferred to Squadron 46

10.5.1939 Damaged on landing

23.10.1939 Transferred to Replenishment Regiment

1.3.1940 Moved to aircraft factory for engine change

12.5.1940 Transferred to Squadron 44

13.6.1940 Damaged on landing

14.9.1940 Moved to aircraft factory

29.4.1941 Transferred to Squadron 42

24.6.1941 Transferred to Replenishment Regiment

22.9.1941 Transferred to Squadron 46

26.11.1941 Transferred to Squadron 48

15.12.1942 Transferred to Replenishment Regiment

3.3.1943 Destroyed


5.1.1937 Ready in Manchester

28.1.1937 Transferred to Flight Station 6

23.7.1937 Damaged

1.1.1938 Transferred to Squadron 46

28.7.1938 Damaged

17.8.1938 Transferred to Squadron 44

10.12.1938 Moved to aircraft factory for overhaul and camera installation

25.4.1939 Transferred to Separate Squadron

23.9.1939 Moved to repairs

23.10.1939 Transferred to Replenishment Regiment

26.2.1940 Destroyed


Finnish Air Force History part 13 Dive Bombers and Liaison Aircraft by Keskinen, Stenman, and Niska